A few weeks ago, I preached on 1 Peter 2:6-12 and my preparation raised two controversial issues. Incidentally, I decided to address these issues in my sermon. In hindsight, I think my sermon got bogged down in answering these difficult questions and perhaps suffered as a consequence. You can listen to the sermon here, if youâ€™re interested.
Anyway, here are the two controversial issues: 1 Peter 2:8 raises the question of predestination in relation to the reprobate, while 1 Peter 2:6, quoting Isaiah 28:16, poses a difficulty in how New Testament writers quote the Old Testament. This blog is all about 1 Peter 2:6, Isaiah 28:16, the Septuagint, the Masoretic Text and how New Testament writers quoted the Old Testament. If that doesnâ€™t whet your appetite, nothing will.
In 1 Peter 2:6, Peter quotes Isaiah 28:16, writing:
â€œBehold, I lay in Zion
A chief cornerstone, elect, precious,
And he who believes on Him will by no means be put to shame.â€ (New King James Version)
But if I read the same quote in Isaiah 28:16, in Isaiah, it says:
â€œBehold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation,
A tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation;
Whoever believes will not act hastily.â€ (Also New King James Version)
You can see immediate differences.Â Has Peter made a mistake in his quote?!
A Start to the Solution â€“ The Septuagint
The most obvious difference is in line 3, where â€œwhoever believes will not act hastilyâ€ becomes â€œhe who believes on him will by no means be put to shameâ€. The source for this change is easy enough to find â€“ Peter is quoting from the Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament), rather than translating the Masoretic Text from Hebrew to Greek himself. Around 70% of New Testament quotes from the Old Testament are quotes from the Septuagint rather than the Hebrew Masoretic Text.
This is unsurprising. The New Testament writers were simply quoting from the most readily available Old Testament scriptures available to the Greek speakers they were writing to. If I were going to write a letter to Christ Church Fareham, I would write it in English and I would quote the Bible using the English ESV version, because thatâ€™s what we and most of our members use.
The Septuagint was a Greek translation of the Hebrew text written in the 3rd century BC. Supposedly, the Septuagint translation was completed by 72 Jewish translators, 6 from each tribe in Israel. One later edit to the story says that each of the translators were locked in their own private cells and miraculously all came up with the exact same translation, proving it was a divinely inspired translation. This edit was undoubtedly falsified and Protestant Christians today do not consider the Septuagint to be the inspired word of God, but a translation of the inspired word of God. However, since we believe the Greek New Testament is the inerrant word of God, when a New Testament writer quotes the Septuagint translation, we must believe that the translation work was accurate.
In that case, how did â€œwhoever believes will not act hastilyâ€ become â€œhe who believes on him will not be put to shameâ€? The Septuagint translator has not translated word for word, but has made some fairly significant interpretive decisions. The first decision the Septuagint translator has made is where belief is to be directed. When you read the Hebrew Masoretic Text of Isaiah 28:16, the reader might well ask â€œWhat should I believe?â€ The Septuagint Translator answers the question. The reader should believe on him. The him is the cornerstone spoken about earlier in the verse. This translation is completely uncontroversial. For centuries, Jewish writers had considered Isaiah 28:16 to be a Messianic text. The cornerstone spoken of was considered to be the Messiah, a king.
The second interpretive decision made is to define what â€œnot act hastilyâ€ really means. Here is how I understand the Septuagint translator thought process. The context of Isaiah 28 is describing impending invasion that will come upon Israel for her disobedience towards God. To act hastily then would be to panic and flee, much earlier than necessary. To flee is a shameful act. So, the one who acts hastily is one who is put to shame for their hasty fleeing. Consequently, â€œthe one who believes on him will not be put to shameâ€ is definitely more like The Message translation of the Bible, rather than the ESV, but it is a fair rendering of the verse.
More Problems â€“ Peter changes the Septuagint Translation as well
Having accepted that Peter quotes the Septuagint, rather than the Masoretic text, youâ€™d think our problems were solved. However, when you line up the full verse in Peter against the verse in the Septuagint, you realise Peter hasnâ€™t quoted the Septuagint exactly. Hereâ€™s the Greek:
á¼°Î´Î¿á½º á¼Î³á½¼ á¼Î¼Î²Î±Î»á¿¶ Îµá¼°Ï‚ Ï„á½° Î¸ÎµÎ¼ÎÎ»Î¹Î± Î£Î¹Ï‰Î½ Î»Î¯Î¸Î¿Î½ Ï€Î¿Î»Ï…Ï„ÎµÎ»á¿† á¼ÎºÎ»ÎµÎºÏ„á½¸Î½ á¼€ÎºÏÎ¿Î³Ï‰Î½Î¹Î±á¿–Î¿Î½ á¼”Î½Ï„Î¹Î¼Î¿Î½ Îµá¼°Ï‚ Ï„á½° Î¸ÎµÎ¼ÎÎ»Î¹Î± Î±á½Ï„á¿†Ï‚ ÎºÎ±á½¶ á½ Ï€Î¹ÏƒÏ„ÎµÏÏ‰Î½ á¼Ï€á¾½ Î±á½Ï„á¿· Î¿á½ Î¼á½´ ÎºÎ±Ï„Î±Î¹ÏƒÏ‡Ï…Î½Î¸á¿‡. (Septuagint)
á¼¸Î´Î¿á½º Ï„Î¯Î¸Î·Î¼Î¹ á¼Î½ Î£Î¹á½¼Î½ Î»Î¯Î¸Î¿Î½ á¼€ÎºÏÎ¿Î³Ï‰Î½Î¹Î±á¿–Î¿Î½ á¼ÎºÎ»ÎµÎºÏ„á½¸Î½ á¼”Î½Ï„Î¹Î¼Î¿Î½, ÎºÎ±á½¶ á½ Ï€Î¹ÏƒÏ„ÎµÏÏ‰Î½ á¼Ï€â€™ Î±á½Ï„á¿· Î¿á½ Î¼á½´ ÎºÎ±Ï„Î±Î¹ÏƒÏ‡Ï…Î½Î¸á¿‡. (1 Peter)
And hereâ€™s my own word for word translation of 1 Peter, the Septuagint and the Masoretic text.
|1 Peter 2:6||Septuagint||Masoretic Text|
|Behold, I establish in Zion a stone||Behold, I lay for the foundations of Sion a costly stone||Behold, I establish in Zion a stone|
|Chosen, cornerstone, precious||chosen, cornerstone, precious, for its foundations;||Tried, precious, corner(stone), a sure foundation|
|and he that believes on him shall by no means be ashamed||and he that believes on him shall by no means be ashamed||whoever believes will not act hastily|
Peter has made two changes to Septuagint. Firstly, heâ€™s used a different Greek word for â€œlayâ€. Peter has used Ï„Î¯Î¸Î·Î¼Î¹, whereas the Septuagint used á¼Î¼Î²Î±Î»á¿¶. Î¤Î¯Î¸Î·Î¼Î¹ seems like a better translation of the Hebrew â€“ it means place, set or establish, as opposed to á¼Î¼Î²Î±Î»á¿¶, which literally means to throw down. It feels like Peter is correcting the Septuagintâ€™s translation in this first phrase. Interestingly, Peter uses the same verb in verse 8 â€“ â€œthey stumble at the word, being disobedient, unto which they were appointed (established or placed)â€. So, as well as correcting the Septuagintâ€™s translation, Peter could also be establishing a link between the establishing of the cornerstone and the establishing of the reprobate in disobedience (get excited for the controversial blog on predestination of the reprobate, coming soon).
Secondly, Peter removed all references to â€œfoundationâ€ in his translation. This change is particularly baffling. The Hebrew certainly includes the word â€œfoundationâ€. In fact, if we were literally translating the Hebrew into English, instead of writing â€œsure foundationâ€, we would write â€œfoundation foundationâ€. The Septuagint also uses â€œfoundationâ€ several times in its translation. Itâ€™s clearly an important part of the verse in the Old Testament. Peter must have decided to remove the word foundation, believing it to be implicit in the word cornerstone and also recognizing that heâ€™s not specifically referencing the â€œfoundationâ€ part of the verse in any of preceding verses.
So, here we have a picture of Peter using the Septuagint and his Hebrew Masoretic Text and also tailoring the quotes to focus attention on his particular theological points.Â Peter the fisherman has truly in the Spiritâ€™s power become a master scholar.
One Final Thought – Romans 9:33
Now, have a look at Romans 9:33. There, too, Isaiah 28:16 has been quoted, this time by Paul.
â€œBehold, I am laying in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence;
and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.â€
Paul has mashed together Isaiah 28:16 and Psalm 118:22! This is interesting because these are the two passages Peter chooses to quote in 1 Peter 2:6-8. Peterâ€™s translation is near identical to Paulâ€™s, so itâ€™s likely one was dependent on the other. Most scholars have Paul writing Romans before Peter writes 1 Peter, so assume Peter is quoting Paul. Iâ€™m not so sure. Logically, it seems more likely that Peter chose several passages where the Messiah is spoken of as a stone. Then, Paul read Peter and decided to merge the quotes. As opposed to Paul collecting all the quotes, then merging them and Peter reading Paul, quoting Paulâ€™s translations but also separating the quotes and adjusting the Septuagintâ€™s and the Masoretic Textâ€™s versions of the part of the verses heâ€™s inserted. Simply based on reading 1 Peter 2 and Romans 9 it seems more natural to assume Paul was quoting Peter.
That throws up dating issues because most scholars think Romans was written before 58AD, because Paul wrote from Corinth and he left Corinth in 57AD, and 1 Peter was written between 64AD (when Peter arrived in Rome) and 68AD (when Peter was killed). The chronology of Peter being in Rome is highly disputed and based on 1 Peter 5:13 where Peter says he was in Babylon (a Revelation reference to Rome). I need to investigate more fully the argument that Peter means Rome when he says Babylon, but why would Peter write a whole letter in plain English, only to use symbolic, apocalyptic language to describe where he is. Is it possible that Peter wrote 1 Peter before 57AD while he was on mission in the actual Babylon (or in a small town in Egypt called Babylon)?
Some Concluding Thoughts
Itâ€™s possible that this stream of consciousness on Peter, the Masoretic Text, the Septuagint Text and Paul has raised more questions than itâ€™s answered. I certainly havenâ€™t answered definitively all the questions surrounding how Peter arrives at his quotations in the letter.
However, one thing it does do for me, is make Peterâ€™s letter writing feel more real. I really can picture him writing his letter, with his Hebrew Old Testament text and his Greek Old Testament text in front of him, considering how best to phrase his letter for the people of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia. In the evangelical world of believing in the Holy Spirit-breathed, inerrant word of God (of which I am whole-heartedly a part), sometimes we can lose the reality of a man Peter sitting and writing this letter to help a specific group of Christians whom he loved.